Rhizomes and seed.
Stems erect, 30-120 cm tall, either not flowering during the whole growing season or producing a slender, unbranched inflorescence called a spike; stem nodes (joints) distinct and often purplish.
"Spike (seed head) with 1 (rarely 2) unstalked spikelet at each node or joint. Spikelets alternating from one side of the rachis (central stalk of the spike) to the other, and with their flat or broad side towards the rachis; each spikelet made up of 3 to 7 florets (""seeds"") side by side between 2 outer glumes (empty chaff), and either with short awns (bristles) or awnless. Flowers from June to September."
Rhizomes have nodes or joints and internodes, and hard, white, very sharp-pointed tips. They produce roots and branches from the nodes. Some branches turn upwards to emerge as leafy stems. Others continue growing and branching horizontally and expand the patch. Each internode is partly covered by a short, light brown, dry, scaly sheath.
Quack grass occurs in cultivated fields, pastureland, waste places, rights-of-way, lawns and gardens in almost any soil texture throughout Ontario. This is considered the most troublesome perennial weedy grass in Ontario and throughout Canada.
Corn yield loss (%)*: 4 % at 1 plant/m2 15 % at 5 plant/m2 Soybean yield loss (%)*: 4 % at 1 plant/m2 18 % at 5 plant/m2 *assumes that the weed has emerged with the crop and has been left uncontrolled all season.
Quackgrass is not known to be toxic.
Quackgrass may cause allergies (hayfever).
No information exists at this time.
Currently none available for this weed. For the latest research on biological weed control: http://res2.agr.ca/Lethbridge/weedbio/index_e.htm#toc
Currently none available for this weed.
No documented cases of herbicide resistance to date. For more information on weed resistance: http://www.plant.uoguelph.ca/resistant-weeds/
Quackgrass: A. Non-flowering plant. B. Leaf-base. C. Spike. D. 1 Spikelet.
Ligule: membranous, but very short and hard to see.
Auricle: present at the base of the leaf blade.
Rhizomes: Sharp-pointed and far-reaching in the soil.