Reproducing by seed and by underground rhizomes.
Stems erect or curving upwards 20 - 90 cm high.
Lower leaves broadly spoon-shaped, deeply and coarsely dissected or toothed, stalked, smooth, dark green, often glossy and fleshy; upper leaves narrower, similarly dissected or deeply toothed, stalkless and often clasping the stem, alternate (1 per node).
Flower heads large and showy, daisy-like, 2.5 - 5 cm across, borne singly at ends of stems and main branches; ray florets usually 15 to 30 per head, white, 1 - 2 cm long; disk florets bright yellow, short, numerous, densely packed, forming a slightly rounded centre; involucral bracts at base of each head numerous, firm, overlapping, light green with brownish margins; seeds top-shaped with a knob-like projection on the upper end, ridged, and with alternate black and white stripes. When crushed, all parts of the plant have a disagreeably sour odour. Flowers from early June to late autumn.
Single stem protruding from upturned ends of rhizomes, or few to many from a stout root-crown.
Ox-eye daisy is very common and conspicuous throughout Ontario, often forming dense infestations in pastures, meadows and waste places, but also occurring in cultivated land, roadsides, gardens and lawns.
Ox-eye daisy. A. Young rosette. B. Older plant with flowering stems.
Root of ox-eye daisy. Note the large size and depth of the root clump making management with herbicides virtually impossible. Tillage with a moldboard plough is needed to manage
Daisies along roadside, central Ontario, early July.
Close-up of flower head of ox-eye daisy.
Back of flower head of ox-eye daisy.
Narrow leaf of Ox-eye daisy.
This photo compares the ox-eye daisy leaf and the scentless chamomile leaf - two species which can appear similar from a distance. Note the smaller size and more feather-like appearance of the chamomile leaf.