Violet, Field, Viola arvensis

Life Cycle

Annual

Propagation

Reproducing only by seed.

Stems

Erect and short or much-branched and somewhat spreading (Figure 5), up to 30cm long. Fleshy or succulent, with or without fine hair.

Leaves

Leaves of seedlings and young plants are very small, with long stalks, rounded blades, a few shallow teeth, and very small stipules (Figure 1). The stem leaves of older plants are alternate (1 per node), larger, oval to oblong or nearly linear and with a few coarse rounded teeth (Figure 4). The stipules of stem leaves are large, resembling leaf blades, deeply dissected with long thin, terminal lobe and several, narrow, shorter segments on either side.

Flowers and Fruit

Flowers on long thin stalks form axils of leaves contain pale yellow, white and purple colours, resembling those of the cultivated pansy (Figure 1) but much small, about 1-1.5cm long, and with a very short spur (2mm) at the base of the lower petal (Figure 3). The seedpods will split into 3 divisions and scattering numerous, small, brownish seeds. Flowers from early May to midsummer and occasionally in autumn.

Habitat

Field violet occurs throughout most of Ontario in gardens, cereal crops, pastures, abandoned fields and waste places. It is most prevalent in Western Ontario.


Figure #1.

B. Base of young plant C. Flowering plant


Figure #2.

2 leaf seedling


Figure #3.

Leaf with coarse rounded teeth


Figure #4.

Pre-bloom flower


Figure #5.

Purplish-yellow flower


Figure #6.

Pale yellow flower


Figure #7.

Whole plant


Figure #8.

Seedpod with small roundish seeds